Keywords: water transport, ballast water, invasive species, environmental, public health


Water is one of the main ways of transportation. The reduction of water pressure on the ship hull, controlling ship submergence, compensate for the impact of losing weight from fuel or water consumption, help to the existence of lateral balance and stability are the factors that show all ships need ballasting. Ballast water contains a large number of organisms from different species, which are in different life stages (egg, Larvae, Cysts, Spores, or adult). These aquatic invasive species cause damage to fisheries, aquaculture, water supply system, industrial infrastructure, biodiversity, and habitat. The study aims to review open information sources and analyze them to identify the Impact of ship's ballast water on invasive species occurrence, and as a consequence on environmental and public health effects. The search for sources was carried out for the keywords «ballast water», «ecology», «environment», «public health» and «invasive species», as well as for various combinations of these words through the Google Scholar. Restrictions in the search for sources amounted to: since 2005 and in relevance. The features of one of the reasons for the spread of invasive species and negative environmental consequences for aqua systems and public health are studied. The study's practical value lies in the fact that the study results can be used to train workers from water transport and ensure the environmental safety of aqua systems. Predation, parasitism, competition, the introduction of new pathogens, genetic changes, habitat alterations, species shift, and loss of biodiversity are the most important ecological impacts. Exotic species, which are often brought with ballast water, cause change to ecosystem function by changing in a nutrient cycle and a decrease in water quality. It is established that some invasive species including Vibrio Cholera and Giardia duodenalis that are transported by ballast water also affect the public health by increasing the risk of pathogens and parasitism.


Tamelander, J., Riddering, L., Haag, F., Matheickal, J., No, G. M. S. (2010). Guidelines for development of a national ballast water management strategy. GloBallast Partnerships Project Coordination Unit, International Maritime Organization. Available:

Ultrasonic Ballast Water Disinfection. Available:

Christopher, F. D., Richard, C. R. (2002). Ballast water and introduced species: Management Options for Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island. Narragansett Bay Estuary Program, RI Department of Environmental Management, 2002.

Kim, L., Eckford-Soper, L., Pedersen, K.L., Henrik, H. (2019). Development of a novel automated analytical method for viability assessment of phytoplankton used for validation of ballast water treatment systems. Journal of Applied Phycology, 31, 2941–2955.

Henrik, H., Knud, L., Kim, L. (2016). Verification of the effectiveness of ballast water treatment system. Available:

Aquatic nuisance species in ballast water discharges: Issues and Options, draft for public comment – September 10, 2001. Prepared by: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water; Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds; Office of Wastewater Management, Washington, DC.

Battle, J. (2009). Silent Invasion–the spread of marine invasive species via ships’ ballast water. World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland.

Diaz-de-Leon, A., Mondragón, S.D. (2013). Marine Spatial Planning and LMEs in Mexico. In book: Stress, Sustainability and Development of Large Marine Ecosystems during Climate Change: Policy and Implementation. Edition: Publisher: Large Marine Ecosystems GEF-UNDP, Editors: Keneth Sherman, 18, 95–105.

Zebra mussels first appeared in Lake St. Clair. Available:

Yauck, J. (2009). Little quagga mussel has big impact on Lake Michigan. Available:

Herborg, L.M., Rushton, S.P., Clare, A.S., Bentley, M.G. (2003). Spread of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards) in Continental Europe: analysis of a historical data set. In: Jones M.B., Ingólfsson A., Ólafsson E., Helgason G.V., Gunnarsson K., Svavarsson J. (eds) Migrations and Dispersal of Marine Organisms. Developments in Hydrobiology, 174. Springer, Dordrecht. Available:

Learn About Crabs & Relatives: Habitat & community ecology, Research study 13: Invasive green crabs Carcinus maenas. Available:

Byrne, M., Morrice, M.G., Wolf, B. (1997). Introduction of the northern Pacific asteroid Asterias amurensis to Tasmania: reproduction and current distribution. Marine Biology, 127(4), 673–685.

Freda, W., Otremba, Z. (2012). Maritime transport-an environmental problem with ballast water: technical preventive measures. Journal of KONES, 19, 153–158.

News Deck (2017). Paralytic shellfish poison levels force recreational harvest ban, Available:

Fernandes, J.A., Santos, L., Vance, T., Fileman, T., Smith, D., Bishop, J.D.D., Viardd, F., Queirós, A.M., Merino, G., Buisman, E., Austen. M.C. (2016). Costs and benefits to European shipping of ballast-water and hull-fouling treatment: Impacts of native and non-indigenous species. Marine Policy, 64, 148–155.

Martín-Rodríguez, A.J., Babarro, J.M.F., Lahoz, F., Sansón, M., Martín, V.S., Norte, M., Fernández, J.J. (2015). From Broad-Spectrum Biocides to Quorum Sensing Disruptors and Mussel Repellents: Antifouling Profile of Alkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts. PLoS ONE, 10(4), e0123652.

Buck, E.H. (2010). Ballast water management to combat invasive species. Congressional Research Service. 25. Available:

Chris, W. (2017). Controlling the Spread of Invasive Aquatic Species with the Ballast Water Management Convention. Available:

Bircher, K. (2016). UV Treatment of Ballast Water: Market, Regulations, Validation Test Methods. IUVA News, 18(2). Available:

Phillips, S. (2006). Ballast water issue paper. Available:

How to Cite
Kholdebarin, A., Mozaffari, N., Vambol, V., Vambol, S., & Mozaffari, N. (2020). IMPACT OF SHIP’S BALLAST WATER ON INVASIVE SPECIES OCCURRENCE, AND AS A CONSEQUENCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH: A SHORT REVIEW. Labour Protection Problems in Ukraine, 36(1), 18-21.